Graduate Diploma History

Key facts

(REF 2014)

Gain the knowledge and expertise you need to proceed to a History MA or PGCE, even if you are a graduate of another discipline, with this year long course.


Gain the knowledge and expertise you need to proceed to a History MA or PGCE, even if you are a graduate of another discipline, with this year long course. 

This course is also available on a part time basis.

Course Modules 2018/9

Students will select 120 credits from the following modules:

Name Code Credits


Web examine the fortunes and reign of one of the most formidable rulers of the early medieval period and the first emperor in the West since 476: Charlemagne (768--814), king of the Franks. We also explore the fortunes of his wives and courtesans, his children, his courtiers, his 'men of God', his counts and captains, and his many allies and enemies, including Byzantine emperors, Abbasid caliphs, Danish kings, and Avar khans.




Has the United States helped or harmed the rest of the world during its rise to world power? Why has it been, and continues to be, involved in every corner of the globe? This module offers a critical introduction to understanding the history of U.S. foreign relations. You will explore the key themes and traditions that have informed America's approach to international affairs, from foundational ideas in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to increasing influence in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. In addition to analysing traditional political and diplomatic issues, you will consider the link between foreign and domestic policies, and the role of various state and non-state actors that have shaped America's actions abroad. You will work with original primary sources, the latest secondary literature, and a range of cultural and political texts including speeches, newspapers, and editorial cartoons. This broader consideration of foreign relations history engages important contemporary trends in the historiography of U.S. foreign policy - regarding race, gender, and the "international" and "cultural" turns - and connects them to emerging trends in the fields of American history and international relations. As a result, you will gain a detailed understanding of the history of U.S. foreign relations and the legacies that continue to shape debates about America's role in the world today.




The Anglo-Saxon period spanned 600 years from the end of Roman Britain to the Norman Conquest. It was a period of turmoil, seeing waves of immigration, the clash of peoples and religions, and kingdoms jockeying for control. Out of this crucible England emerged. This is the story of how it came to be. Using contemporary sources, you will learn to handle evidence and reconstruct the worldview of people who lived over a thousand years ago. Anglo-Saxon history teaches you to go a long way with a little evidence; to use your imagination to fill in the gaps. Whether it's new to you or something you've studied before, you'll achieve a deeper and richer understanding of how the nation was formed. Via lectures, seminars and private study, you'll discover the Romans, Saxons and Vikings; the strange treasure they left behind; the cryptic and conflicting chronicles (learning to read between the lines), and debates we still haven't resolved today. Developing your powers of argumentation, you'll run into questions with no certain answer. Building with fragmentary evidence will boost your creativity, and you'll encounter ancient artefacts. (Trips have included West Stow Anglo-Saxon village and Norwich Castle Museum.) At the end of the module you'll command an overview of how England came into being. You'll also have built your ability to see other people's points of view, even if they lived a thousand years ago. This is a crucial ability whether in personal or professional relationships. Also learning to argue with evidence as fragmentary as the evidence we'll explore will hone your problem-solving skills to an unusual degree.




Heresy, the deviation from doctrinal orthodoxy (right-belief) was perceived to be an acute problem for society in the high medieval world. After centuries with little disturbance of the orthodox consensus of the Christian West, the eleventh through thirteenth centuries saw an explosion of apparent dissent from Church teaching. Hand-in-hand with the emergence of heresies came a Catholic response, in the form of preaching, written polemics, crusades, and judicial persecution in the form of inquisitions. Heresies arose in a multitude of contexts, from royal courts to university schoolrooms to the petty castles of the rural countryside. We will explore not only what different heretics believed and behaved, but also how they were shaped by their own environments as well as the hierarchies that persecuted them. By examining narrative histories, model sermons, polemical treatises, heretical scriptures and rituals, and inquisitorial deposition records, we will explore the necessary role that heresy plays in the construction of orthodoxy, while also listening closely to the heretical voices that have survived to uncover how these men and women imagined and inhabited their world.




The decade from 1935 to 1945 was one of the most tumultuous in global history. This module examines Britain's peacetime diplomacy and wartime strategy, as it responded to three totalitarian powers: Germany, Italy and Japan. The policy of 'appeasement' adopted by the Baldwin and Chamberlain governments remains hugely controversial, and the subject of vigorous debate. Britain's role in the global war that erupted in 1939 has, similarly, fascinated historians ever since. You will explore the foreign policies adopted by Britain's 'National' Government, from Baldwin's victory in the 1935 election to the outbreak of war in September 1939. You will consider why and how these policies were adopted, the wider political and economic context within which policy was made, and the national and international consequences. In the spring semester, you will examine Britain's wartime role in the context of grand strategy and international politics. In addition to considering topics such as Churchill's 'finest hour', we will spend some time examining the operation of the Grand Alliance and the series of wartime conferences between Britain and its allies. Throughout its course, you will explore the rich historiography of the period, and examine its complexities. We will draw upon a wide range of primary documentation, which will provide the basis of debate and discussion.




The beginning of the twentieth century witnessed a period of immense instability and change with the emergence of the United States as an international actor in the West and the Japanese break from the Chinese sphere of influence in the East. This was underpinned by technological developments, the expansion of global empires, extreme economic dislocation and two global wars. You will examine the conduct and content of the foreign policies of the major powers from the 1890s, with the Sino-Japanese War and the Spanish-American War, to the Japanese occupation of Asia. This will include assessing the interplay of the political, military, economic, strategic and cultural forces that shaped the beginning of the twentieth century and which continue to resonate in the contemporary world.




You will begin with a search for the origins of the Yugoslav idea, before turning to the Kingdom's formation in 1918. The turbulent interwar years provide the indispensable backdrop to the second, communist, Yugoslavia. You shall explore the course of the Second World War and the bitter fighting between fascists, nationalists and communists which resulted in victory for Tito's partisans. After 1945, they built a state which took an independent path to communism and survived until 1991. Yugoslavia then fragmented into ethnically homogenous states. In some cases this transition was largely peaceful, but wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo witnessed bloody fighting and ethnic cleansing. You will look at the role of individuals, such as Slobodan Milosevic, and end by assessing the international community's response to the crimes committed in the former Yugoslavia.




Assassination. Foreign invasion. Revolt and rebellion. Political and religious plots loomed large and posed a constant threat in Early Modern England. Conspiracy was not simply an imagined threat nor did it exist in theory; it was a social and political reality that elicited fear, shaped policies and gave rise to self-fulfilling prophecies. Did the greatest threat of subversion come from popular uprisings, foreign invasion or from the heart of the British government? From Mary, Queen of Scots and the Gunpowder Plot to the hidden agenda of Charles I, this module will survey a series of popular, elite and royalist conspiracies. Moving behind official narratives, it will draw on a host of resources to investigate alternative explanations for crisis over power, authority and legitimacy during this period. Each conspiracy will provide and point of entry into broader changes in early modern society as the crown and commons reimagined and realigned political, religious and social boundaries.




In this module, you will explore how the past is constantly constructed and reconstructed in the present. In the first part of the module we will consider how mnemonic processes are created, by who, and for what purpose. Commemoration, memorialisation, and visual representations form a key part of this process. In the second part of the module, we will study the ways in which individuals and groups remember and how this often differs from official or mediated discourses. In the third and final part, we will explore various 'memory conflicts' and their present day consequences. Throughout, film, photography, visual and audio media, and oral history will form key components of our studies.



Camps in History and Memory: The 20th Century in Detentions, Migrations, and Exploitation

The late philosopher Zygmunt Bauman called the 20th century 'a century of camps'; for him, camps were testing grounds for totalitarian regimes. In this module, you will study the history of the violent last century through the unique lens of camps: concentration camps, forced labour camps, POW camps, refugee camps, and others. Through diverse material selected for the course, you will analyse the well-known events of the 20th century by looking at camps as places of detention, indoctrination, re-education, labour exploitation, and extermination. This unique angle provides insights into the politics of great totalitarian powers, as well as their models for organising and governing society and interacting with other nations of the world. Camps did not appear out of nowhere; each place of detention was part of an institutional network driven by divergent aims: to contain, correct, re-educate, punish. You will study these networks within their historical contexts, using diverse materials specific to each case. Also, a study of camps cannot be limited to camp walls and barbed wire; while static themselves and built to limit people's movements, camps were ironically dependent on the movements of people from place to place. Thus a study of camps inevitably involves the study of forced migrations. To acquaint you with the less studied side of global, regional and transnational interactions, a variety of sources, analyses, and methods will be used in order to make sense of international regimes of detention, control, and punishment.




In medieval England, death and what lay beyond were constantly visible. Parts of the landscape were given over to the dead: there were barrows, haunted by the pagan dead; cemeteries for the Christian dead; and lonely hermitages, whose occupants spoke with the dead. 'King Death', shown as a skeleton with spear or bow, would strike down the living at any age. Ghosts wandered forth from the grave, and vivid images of the dead were painted in churches, haunting churchgoers every Sunday, dancing before their mind's eye in their dreams. Visions of the dead were not uncommon, and sometimes they made such demands on the living that the latter spent their lives serving them. Studying death, you will learn about the impact of this universal and timeless fear, and you'll discover the role of belief systems in combating deep anxieties that are part of the human condition. The module is designed as much for beginners as for those who have studied medieval history before. Through lectures, seminar discussion, and private study, you'll develop an understanding of beliefs about death and the otherworld in medieval England; how medieval people prepared for death; how ghosts and the undead irrupted into their world; the role of those who served the dead or acted as mediators between the dead and the living; demons, the evil dead and saints (the holy dead); and how death was represented in medieval art. Our trip around East Anglian churches explores tombs and wall paintings. By the end you'll have gained the capacity to reflect on human belief systems; and by studying death you'll also discover strategies for coping with the fears which have accompanied life in every age and culture.




This module offers you the opportunity to submit a dissertation of 10,000 words on a topic approved by the School. For you to be considered for this module you will have achieved an aggregate of 68% across the Level 5 Autumn semester modules. No other changes will be made.




In this module you will explore the experiences and fortunes of the peoples of the western peninsula of Eurasia between the rule of the Emperor Constantine I in the 330s and the call to crusade in the 1090s. At the beginning of the period the lands centred on the Mediterranean and much of its hinterland were situated within the Roman empire. Yet, within three hundred years, this empire had disintegrated and been replaced by a number of successor states, ruled by competing dynasties. These states included Visigothic Hispania, Vandal Africa, and Merovingian Francia. Another#in fact, the longest lived of all the successor states#was the eastern empire centred on Constantinople, long known to historians as 'the Byzantine empire'. By the close of the seventh century, many of these states had themselves been conquered by Arabic and African warriors committed to the new religion of Islam and been incorporated in the Caliphate centred on the city of Damascus#an empire which easily rivalled the might, spread, and power of Rome before its own collapse and fission in circa 1000. What Islamic rulers could do, so too could Christian ones. In 800 the son of a Frankish usurper, Charlemagne, was crowned emperor of the West. The actions and ambitions of this emperor were as formative and as formidable in the history of ninth and tenth century Europe as those of Napoleon in the eighteenth and nineteenth. The heirs and successors of Charlemagne#whether Frankish, Ottonian, or Scandinavian#were long compelled to negotiate his legacy and memory. By the eleventh century even the Roman pontiffs, now advancing a new programme of reform and renewal, were looking to situate themselves in relation to his Salian successors. The summons to liberate Jerusalem and rescue the Greek empire in the east, carefully tailored to the aspirations of the new elites of Francia and Catalonia, was perhaps the most explosive strategy advanced by these Roman pontiffs. This course is thus broad in chronological scope, covering more than eight hundred years, and extensive in geographical range, taking you from the Atlantic to the Euphrates, from the Atlas mountains to the North Sea. In the course of this journey you will meet many warriors, saints, and rulers, both female and male.




Fieldwork is a key part of landscape history and this module will give you hands-on practical experience of a range of landscape survey methods. Our fieldwork week will take place during the summer and will provide you with training in various survey techniques that can be applied to earthworks and buildings. Your surveys will form the basis for site drawings and a research project on the site we have surveyed. Seminars and field trips will take place in the Autumn semester and will cover topics such as drawing earthwork plans and carrying out original research using archive maps and documents. By the end of the module, you'll be able to recognise and interpret historic landscape features in the field and use a combination of survey work and original research to understand them.




You will be introduced to an eventful period of history during which France exercised a preponderant role over European affairs and culture. The module will provide you with the essential background knowledge of political events, revolutions and wars but it will also encourage you to explore deeper social and cultural trends. In the first weeks we will reconsider 'Old regime' France, drawing attention to its dynamism and cultural richness before turning to the crises that discredited Bourbon absolutism. In subsequent weeks we will focus on the Revolutionary-Napoleonic epoch: our endeavour here will be to explain why the Revolution was revolutionary in theory, violent in practice and dictatorial in consequence. We will then reflect on the Restoration. Using extracts from Hugo's Les Miserables as our starting point, we will look at how rapid industrialization generated social tensions that successive ministries tried to diffuse through repression and reform. Next, we will look at the France of the Second Republic and Second Empire; our focus here will be Napoleon III's modernization initiatives and dramatic remodelling of Paris. Finally, we will approach the history of the Third Republic between 1870 and 1914 from three angles: its success in making the populace feel French; science, art and culture; and its nationalistic foreign policy, which contributed toward undermining the general European peace. The seminars for this module will provide us with an opportunity to analyse and discuss in depth an eclectic range of primary sources, including textual documents (in English translation) ranging from constitutions to period fictional writings, maps, advertisements, artwork, extant material and architectural evidence, and music.




The French Revolution destroyed age-old cultural, institutional and social structures in France and beyond. Yet, in their attempt to regenerate humanity, the revolutionaries were creative as well as destructive, creating a new political culture with far-reaching implications. This will provide an opportunity to study different aspects of the Revolution in depth. You will become familiar with the Revolution's key political turning points and personalities from Maximilian Robespierre to Napoleon Bonaparte. But a great part of this special subject will be devoted to exploring the artistic, cultural and intellectual dimensions of this eventful period. In doing so, you will master the art of interpreting and contextualizing a variety of different kinds of primary sources, such as caricatures, constitutions, legislative decrees, philosophical tracts, artisan memoirs and private letters.




You will explore one of the most turbulent and dynamic periods in English history: c.1400-1485. In addition to exploring the narrative of events as it unfolded chronologically you will also learn about topics such as: theories of medieval kingship, the relationship between church and state, the relationship between England and Continental Europe, medieval warfare, chivalry and knighthood, the relationship between national and local concerns, and the opportunities for people of all genders to participate in political struggle. You will have the opportunity to read a wide range of primary sources as well as considering key historiographical debates. Upon completion of your module, you should have a more nuanced understanding of the exercise of power in the 15th century and how the deeds and decisions of those in charge impacted the lives of people further down the social spectrum. You should also have honed your skills in primary source analysis and historiographical scrutiny.




World War II and the immense sacrifices the Soviet people made in defeating Nazism left multiple long-lasting legacies that shaped the multi-ethnic Soviet and post-Soviet Russian state, society and economy. This module aims to give students a better understanding of the state of contemporary Russian politics, society and economy through detailed historical enquiry of Russia's path since 1945. The module is divided into two main parts: week 2-8 will examine key periods of post-war Russian history in chronological order, while week 9-13 will look more closely at key contemporary in their historical perspective. These will include the question what it meant to be Soviet and its legacy; geopolitical imperatives, which only recently led Putin to invade Crimea; identity politics and historical commemoration; the transition of the economy from a planned economy to a market economy; and the complex mutations and adaptations of power structures in Russia that gave birth to Putin's 'managed democracy'.




The end of the First World War witnessed both the expansion of the British Empire to its largest extent, covering a quarter of the globe, and the destruction of its colonial rivals. However, the First World War also unleashed nationalist forces that would challenge the British imperial system. This resulted in outbreaks of riots and resistance against British rule in Ireland, India, Mesopotamia and Egypt. Weakened economically and socially by the gargantuan effort of winning the war how would Britain maintain her far-flung lines of empire? We will examine how Britain attempted to secure her strategic interests both within an era of growing nationalist resistance from within the Empire and against external threats from a resurgent Japan, Germany and Italy. We will introduce students to the high-tide of war imperialism; inter-war imperial defence; the crisis of empire Britain faced in Ireland, India and the Middle East; the 'family-network' of the Dominions; colonial development in Africa and the Caribbean as well as what it meant to fight the Second World War on an imperial footing during the campaigns in the Mediterranean and North Africa, finishing with the strategic abyss that was the fall of Singapore in February 1942. By examining the pressures policy-makers faced from within the Empire and from outside we will seek to gain a deeper understanding of how the British Empire functioned during this pivotal period of the imperial project.




Historians often concentrate on wars and conflicts between nations; this module seeks to examine ideas and institutions which have aimed at the common good of humanity. In the aftermath of the Napoleonic wars, a whole range of ideas for uniting mankind developed, as did the infrastructure of trade and communications which held the potential to make this possible. Ideas of internationalism developed among liberals, socialists and conservatives as well as significant cultural figures such has H G Wells and Jules Verne. Such ideas also developed in the United States, shaping the thinking of President Woodrow Wilson and the peace settlement at the end of the First World War. The League of Nation after 1918 also represented the first attempt to realize a form of global governance, and such ideas were renewed in the form of the United Nations after 1945, a period which, despite the rivalries of the Cold War, saw the revival of a whole range of ideas for re-uniting men and women across national boundaries. The legacy of this international tradition remained a potent force in shaping globalisation in the later twentieth century. Topics to be studied will include: Uniting nations before and after 1815: the Concert of Europe and the Brotherhood of Man; Peace, free trade and the origins of liberal internationalism in 19th Britain; Communications and global governance; the emergence of Liberal internationalism in the United States; Socialist internationalism before 1914; Cultural internationalism in fin de siecle Europe; Wilsonian internationalism and the peace settlement of 1919; The League of Nations between the Wars; Conservative internationalism between the Wars; Socialist internationalism, 1919-1939; Thinking about peace, 1919-1939; the emergence of the United Nations; Global economic order after 1945; Globalising human rights.




This module examines the theory and practice of grand strategy in historical and contemporary contexts from a variety of analytical perspectives. It defines grand strategy as 'the calculated relation of means to large ends'. It focuses on how parts relate to the whole in whatever an individual, a corporation or a nation might be seeking to accomplish. The strategists considered range over some two and a half millennia. Some represent the best thinking and writing on this subject; others exemplify success and failure in the implementation of grand strategy.




The reign of Henry VIII was a major turning point in English history, and 'bluff King Hal' continues to horrify and fascinate us in equal measure. We will use the preoccupations, ambitions, and character of Henry VIII as a route into the political, religious and cultural changes of this tumultuous period. Starting with the acclaimed young king, his Spanish bride, Katherine of Aragon, and his consummate minister, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, we will work chronologically and thematically through to the declining years of Henry VIII's reign, when a paranoid, obese and cruel monarch presided over an irrevocably changed religious and political landscape. We examine in detail the divorce crisis, the establishment of the Church of England, the Henrician Reformation, the politics and factionalism of the Court, war and foreign policy, magnificence, and opposition to the king, and engages with the intense historiographical debates on all these issues. We consider some of the most colourful personalities in English history - Wolsey, More, Boleyn, Cromwell, and Cranmer - as well as structures, and the falls of Anne Boleyn and Thomas Cromwell are given particular attention. Finally, we will draw on material culture, art history, literature, film, and even dress, as well as relying on the more usual documentary sources, such as the State Papers.




What shapes our view of history and heritage? How do we balance academic approaches with the need to engage an audience? How do we assess the significance of historic buildings and sites? You will explore these questions by studying the ways in which history is presented in the public sphere, in museums and galleries, at heritage sites and historic buildings, in the media and online. Through lectures, seminars and field trips you will gain an understanding of different current approaches to history and heritage, exploring themes such as the role of museums, the commemoration of historic events and the development of digital heritage.




Since the unification of the states of the Italian peninsula, the history of modern Italy has been the subject of intense historical debate. Modern Italy has often been cast as a 'weak' state and 'fragile' nation, riven by particularism and by competing secular and religious ideologies, 'economically backward,' less successful than its national neighbours, and 'the least of the Great Powers.' More recent historiography has sought to challenge or modify these perceptions in a number of ways, and this course examines modern Italian history from unification to present day, in the light of these ongoing historiographical debates. You will consider: a) Italian nationalism, the process of Italian unification and the attempts to create national unity after 1870 b) the relationship between socio-economic change and political development in Liberal Italy c)the impact of the First World War on Italian society and politics e)the nature of the Fascist regime and its impact on Italian society f)the radicalisation of the regime, its racial policies and the quest for Empire g)Italy's role in World War II, the reasons for the collapse of the Fascist regime, and the emergence of civil war h) Italian history since 1945.




On this module you will study the history of Norwich from the Norman Conquest to the present day. Throughout you will discover a range of approaches to the study of urban history, using original documents, archaeological finds, maps, photographs and historic buildings. The city of Norwich will be our main focus, but you will also draw on other comparative examples around England, such as London, York, Exeter or Leeds, to place the development of Norwich within its wider context. You will combine social, political and economic history with a consideration of the built environment of the city; key buildings, open spaces and street patterns. As well a mixture of lectures and seminars, you will be able to learn from regular field trips into Norwich to explore historic buildings, museum collections and landscapes.




This module examines some of the main themes in Russian history between the Emancipation of the Serfs and the outbreak of the Second World War. We will look at the nature of industrialisation and the peasant economy, the autocracy and its fall in 1917, the revolutionary movement and the nationalities question. We will then examine how the Revolution of 1917 changed the state and the ways in which the Communists attempted to change society before 1929. We conclude by examining the country during the era of the five year plans and the impact of the Stalinist system on the Soviet Union before the outbreak of world war.




We explore the eventful and troubled history of modern Iraq. Taking its starting point in the nineteenth century, when Iraq was part of the Ottoman Empire, the module explores how the country came under British tutelage following the Great War and how it subsequently experienced a turbulent history as various political actors sought to wrest control of the newly established state. We pay special attention to key moments when the course of Iraq's history changed, such as wars, military coups, and revolutions, but also periods in between when society returned to some sort of normality. It will particularly focus on the rise of political ideologies, especially Arab nationalism, and its local counterpart, Iraqi nationalism - but also other ideologies such as socialism, communism and Ba#thism. Saddam Hussein's domination of the country (1979-2003) is also an important element of the module.




In just a few decades Japan emerged from its feudal and isolationist condition and became a thriving capitalist nation-state with imperialist ambitions on the world's stage. From the mid-nineteenth century onwards, the country re-invented itself, combining the strength of its traditions with Western models of government, economic management, social structure and culture. Samurai gave way to elite bureaucrats; a skilled industrial workforce gradually displaced the peasantry; education expanded with remarkable speed; new infrastructure transformed the physical landscape. New patterns of daily life, social tensions and cultural aspirations accompanied these changes. The aggressive expansionist policy and authoritarianism of the 1930s precipitated the country into a war with devastating consequences, only for Japan to resurrect itself as a global industrial power and stable democracy in the post-war era. This module examines this process of transformation from circa 1850, when Western powers pressured Japan into opening to international trade, to the oil shock of the 1970s that brought an end to Japan's high growth phase. You will pay attention to the intellectual and cultural trends that informed Japan's development, and investigate concepts such as revolution, national identity, civilizational discourse, late imperialism, and historical memory. You will also explore social and economic change as reflected in lived experience, for example in farms and villages at the turn of the century; on the home front during the Russo-Japanese War; in bustling cities during the Taisho era; in colonial outposts before and during the Pacific War; and in occupied Japan afterwards.




In 1968, Japan astonished the world by overtaking West Germany as the world's second largest capitalist economy. It was easy to forget that two decades earlier the nation lay in ruins, defeated by the Allies in WWII. And a mere century before, in 1868, Japan had been a samurai-ruled feudal backwater, forced open by western gunboat diplomacy and under threat of colonisation. How did this East Asian nation attain its impressive position in the modern world in such a short time? We will explore Japan's modern history through its formative exchanges with the outside world. By looking at a wide variety of primary sources - media reports, government documents, memoirs, autobiographies, travelogues, and others - we will explore the transnational encounters that shaped Japan's modern society, economy, culture and ideas. We will retrace the nation's often bumpy transition from tradition to modernity in the late nineteenth century; the humiliations and anxieties vis-a-vis the "great powers"; the appeal of foreign "dangerous thoughts" to homegrown dissidents; the impact of imperialist ideologies following the European "Age of Empire"; the militarist revolt against party politics in the 1930s; the harsh reality of war both at home and overseas; the post-WWII recovery and alliance with the United States; and the subsequent refashioning of Japan's place in the world. By examining Japan's links with North America, Western Europe, Russia and the Soviet Union, and East and South East Asia, we will analyse how flows of ideas, people and goods helped shape the nation as we know it today.




You will examine the political, cultural and social history of later medieval Europe (circa 1100-1400). It has a particular focus on the Empire and Italy, but we will also look at France and Constantinople. We will encounter some of the chief characters of the period, such as Emperors Frederick Barbarossa and Frederick II, 'the Wonder of the World', and Pope Innocent III. You will be introduced to some of the most important events and concepts to shake medieval Europe, such as the intellectual Renaissance of the twelfth century, the Crusades, the rise of Heresy and the Inquisition, the Empire's long struggle in Italy, and the Papal Schism.




This module provides an introduction to the linguistic skills in medieval Latin which enable students to read administrative documents such as charters, accounts, court rolls, etc. It is particularly suited for those who intend on proceeding to postgraduate study in aspects of the past, such as medieval history, which require a reading knowledge of Latin. This course is not intended for students who have already studied Latin to A level or equivalent.




We examine the development of the medieval castle in England and Wales. Topics for discussion include the origins of the castle, siege warfare, castle siting and the role of the castle as an icon of lordship.




This module focuses on the history of travel and travel writing from the late Middle Ages to the early Nineteenth century. We explore the development of ideas of travelling and of travel narratives within Europe, the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Topics include pilgrimages and pilgrim guides; Renaissance ethnographies; geography and cartography; monsters and fantasies; travellers and intellectuals; the visual and material culture of travelling; cultural conflict and toleration in colonial America; antiquarianism; the Grand Tour; imagined travels.




We will introduce students to German history in the twentieth century which was characterised by various radical regime changes and territorial alterations. Topics include German world policy and nationalism in the late imperial period; imperialism and expansionism during the First World War; the challenges of modernity in the Weimar Republic; the rise of Hitler and the formation of the Nazi empire in Europe; the post-war division of Germany and the legacy of the Third Reich; the nature of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) dictatorship and the problem of West German terrorism; as well as the fall of the Berlin Wall and reunification. Special attention will be given to questions of nationalism and national identity, issues of history and memory, and Germany's role in Europe and the world. On completion of this unit, students will have developed a solid understanding of one of the most dramatic periods of German history when the country oscillated between the two extremes of war and repression, on the one hand, and the return to peace and democracy, on the other.




We deal with the rivalries of the Great Powers from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the onset of the Cold War and its end with collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. We shall be examining topics such as the Vienna system; the Crimean War; Italian and German unification, the origins of the First and Second World Wars and the Cold War period.



Nationalism in Europe since 1789: Shaping Identities in the Age of Modernity

You will examine in depth the history of nationalism in Europe from the late eighteenth to the twentieth century. The central theme is the relationship between the rise and development of nationalism and the shaping of images and discourses about Europe. You will consider and compare the strength of nationalism to the weakness of Europeanism in order to improve your historical understanding of identity formation processes in the modern age. In this sense, it does not consider the nation and Europe as being one the denial of the other, but as forces interacting in complex ways and, in given instances, feeding upon one another. Centred on this theoretical concern, you will be offered a broad survey of the history of nationalism from the Age of Enlightenment to the European integration process, explaining how it has developed into a mass movement and an ideology affecting so deeply the life of millions of individuals across Europe. The perspective used will be that of the cultural historian and the historian of ideas and ideologies. A variety of different primary sources - including pictures, novels, private correspondence, newspaper articles, political tracts and pamphlet, history books, films, songs, etc# - will be used to highlight, on the one hand, the ambiguities of modern nationalism, to explain its quasi-religious nature and explore its strength and resilience. On the other hand, they will help us investigate how and to what extent discourses about Europe affected, after the Second World War, one of the greatest projects of political engineering ever attempted, highlighting the economic success of EU integration and considering its incapacity to create a strong attachment to EU institutions. The course is interdisciplinary in nature. While it is essentially addressed to historians, especially if you are interested in cultural history and in the history of ideologies, it also considers sociological issues and topics that would appeal if you are interested in politics.




This module introduces you to the history and theory of propaganda, and its role in society. You'll consider what constitutes and defines propaganda. Focusing on the 20th century, we examine propaganda in a range of political settings, both totalitarian and democratic, in the local context of the relationships of power and communications. The module is structured chronologically, starting with the development of propaganda during World War I and finishing with a consideration of propaganda in the 21st century.




You will examine three centuries of European history connecting two unprecedented revolutionary epochs: the Reformation of the 16th century and the American and French revolutions at the end of the early modern era. We will look at key themes and movements in these centuries, including the politics of the Reformation; the Mediterranean work of the Ottomans and Habsburg Spain; the Dutch Golden Age; the great political and religious struggles of the 17th century, including wars in the British Isles, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Baltic; the Russia of the Romanov czars and Peter the Great; the growth of centralised states and absolutism in France, Prussia and Austria; the Enlightenment; the rise of the Atlantic economies; and the challenge to the Old Regime from revolutionary politics.




We will examine the wider subject of resistance to royal authority by men who become outlaws and their portrayal in popular legend from the Norman Conquest of England to the twentieth century with its focus being the outlaw for whom the name Robin Hood has become an archetype. We will examine the stories of medieval outlaws before going onto look at the Robin Hood tales in particular. We will then follow Robin Hood into the early and modern periods, through children's literature and on into the modern renditions of Robin Hood in film and in pantomime.




More than a century after Lenin's Bolsheviks proclaimed the world's first socialist revolution in Petrograd, the events of 1917 retain their power to fascinate, inspire, bewilder and repel. How can we understand the Russian revolution, why did it happen, and what did it mean for the people who made and lived through it? On this module we'll use a range of sources, including contemporary documents, newspaper reports, and memoirs - some translated specially for this module - to answer these questions. We start with the run-up to the revolutionary events of 1905, when the whole empire was convulsed with strikes, uprisings and armed clashes. We then take the story through the Tsarist regime's attempt to shore up its authority through limited consitutionalist concessions, before looking at World War One and the fall of the monarchy. We'll look in detail at what happened in 1917 and why - not only in the Russian heartland but also in certain non-Russian parts of the empire. Finally, we'll examine the civil war and why the Reds won. Throughout, we put the story in its historical, political and geographical context, always with an eye to its impact on later developments up to today. By understanding the events of a century ago, you'll gain insights into the Russia of today and the troubled and turbulent post-Soviet area. You'll also gain invaluable experience of carrying out in-depth independent research and presenting your findings.




Few decades in the modern period have proved as polarising as the 1960s. From 'swinging' London and the student protests of 1968 to the consequences of an allegedly 'permissive' society, the social, cultural and political implications of the decade reverberate into the present. We will cover the political impact of social and cultural trends such as: affluence and consumer culture; youth, pop music and subcultures; the counter-culture, pop-art; film, theatre, television and censorship; the 'New Left' and the birth of cultural studies; changing sexual behaviour and the 'permissive' moment; the politics of 'race' and immigration; education, social mobility and the 'new' universities; slum clearance, suburbanisation and the rise of the tower block. While focusing on Britain, key global themes will be unpacked and their local significance explored: cultures of the cold-war; decolonisation anti-colonial struggles; anti-nuclear and anti-Vietnam protests; the civil rights movement; the rise of 'second wave' feminism and gay liberation; structuralism and post-modernity. Through the analysis of autobiographical accounts and oral histories and contemporary books, films, music, television shows, sociological surveys, archival sources, official publications and material culture students will be encouraged to come to their own conclusions about this tumultuous decade.




Few topics in 20th century European history have continuously exerted a fascination among scholars as has the era of Stalinism in Soviet Russia. Stalin died more than 60 years ago, but he remains one of the creators of our world. During his time in power the Soviet Union underwent a rapid industrialisation that saw new cities emerging in places that had not seen any civilisation before. It underwent a complete reorganisation of agriculture and saw the construction of a large Gulag system amidst widespread mass terror. Stalin was intent on changing the whole culture of Soviet Russia. Finally, the regime was engaged in a total war with Nazi Germany and emerged as a new superpower in the world. Fascinating aspects of Stalinism are its brutality and cruelty, but this is counterbalanced by its magnificent and stunning cultural and scientific achievements. Through this special subject you'll examine the Stalin era in the context of other 20th-century dictatorships. You'll particularly focus on: Stalin's rise to power; Stalin's revolution; terror and its impact on Soviet society; war and dictatorship; decline and fall - Stalin and destalinization. You'll find that cultural change will also form an important part of the module. In the seminars you'll work with a wide variety of sources ranging from memoirs, secret police reports, and letters written by ordinary citizens to film, newsreel footage, propaganda posters and other art work.




We will explore the dramatic century of Stuart rule in England. This 'century of revolution' included the union of the English and Scottish crowns, the dramatic upheaval of the civil wars, and the continued political instability that led to the birth of political parties and the Glorious Revolution. While exploring these political themes we will also consider developments such as: the birth of modern news culture, crowd politics, civil society and coffee shops, the origins of empire, state formation, and the emergence of England as 'a nation of shop keepers' and Europe's great 'constitutional monarchy'.



The British Civil Wars

We will look at the causes, course and significance of what, in terms of relative population loss, was probably the single most devastating conflict in British history: the civil wars and interregnum of 1640-1662. Families, villages and towns were divided. Hundreds of thousands died, from warfare, disease, and the disruption of food supplies. And by the late 1640s, some began to question the very basis of authority in early modern society; the king was executed, monarchy and the House of Lords was abolished, the national Church was all but disestablished. Yet by 1660 the revolution collapsed, when, remarkably, Charles II was invited to return Stuart rule to Britain and Ireland under powers largely equal to those his father enjoyed before the civil wars. We will explore these themes and questions and more through key sources and new discoveries.




We survey the history of the British Empire from the mid-19th century to the years of decolonization. How did Britain come to rule the largest empire in world history and what factors brought about the empire's eventual demise? At its height in 1919, the British Empire stretched over a quarter of the globe and included almost a third of humanity, with a staggering 458 million people spread across 13 million square miles. You will be introduced to the diverse groups of British people who manned the empire - including missionaries, soldiers, settlers and colonial civil servants - and to the various ways that colonised people survived and contested British colonial domination. You will discover what everyday life was like under British colonial authority in the 19th and 20th centuries. We will investigate key moments of crisis in the empire, from the Indian Rebellion of 1857 to the Mau Mau Uprising in Kenya in the 1950s, considering the local and global causes of these events, what people in these anti-colonial movements were fighting for, and how they came to transform global understandings of political sovereignty, citizenship and racial equality.




You'll analyse the emergence, development and end of the Cold War. In doing so you'll explore the historical circumstances behind the conflict, relations between the United States of America, the Soviet Union and other states, as well as the impact of nuclear weapons. The Cold War has been revisited by historians from various angles, and in a variety of ways, in recent years and this module is structured to enable engagement with these new histories. You'll take account of developments traditionally viewed as central to the history of the post-war era, while exploring lesser known case studies and alternative spheres where the conflict played out. This will include coverage of a range of states in Europe and beyond. Broader themes, such as the role of propaganda, sport and youth will also be considered, as will the overarching bodies of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement and the emerging European project. The module concludes by asking why the Cold War ended so abruptly and why the process was peaceful in some cases and violent in others.




We will consider the history of the Crusades and the Crusader States from 1095 to 1291, covering a broad range of themes, religious , military and social, and taking into consideration the relations between Christians and Moslems in the Holy Land. Particular attention will be paid to primary sources, which are abundant and available in English translation.




This Special Subject focuses on the lives and actions of three of the most charismatic rulers in twelfth- and early thirteenth-century Western Europe. We begin by an examination of the creator of the Angevin dynasty, Henry fitz Empress, who, by the time he was twenty-one, dominated more than half of the kingdom that was to become France as well as being king of the English. Henry was a successful military commander; in England, he was the creator of the English common law and a centralising administration. And it was of him that St Bernard is supposed to have declared 'he came from the Devil and he will go to the Devil'. His son and successor, Richard the Lionheart, was one of the greatest knights of his age as well as being a crusader and successful military commander who seemingly placed the Angevin dynasty on a solid footing. After these two great makers of aristocratic empire, the third ruler of the dynasty almost brought the whole edifice crashing down. King John lost the continental lands, and by the time of his death his lands were being ravaged by a foreign prince, his barons were in revolt having gathered themselves behind a document we know as Magna Carta, and his dynasty on the verge of extinction. This Special Subject has at its core the story of the creation and near destruction of this dynasty; and seeks further to examine the politics, culture, and society of the lands over which the Angevin dynasty held sway. This was an age of profound intellectual, religious, and political change, and studies will be set within this wider context. You will be expected to become familiar with the primary sources in translation and to be aware of current historiographical debates.




How did the British Empire 'strike back' on British culture and politics during the years of decolonisation? Younwill investigate the dramatic political, social and cultural consequences of the end of imperial power in Britain from the 1950s to the present. You will consider how international relationships and cultural identities were transformed in these years and the impact of anti-colonial thought and anti-racist activism on British politics. The module contains three thematic cores: (1) decolonization and new forms of British influence in the 'Third World' during the Cold War period (2) histories of migration, Black Liberation and anti-racist activism and (3) the impact of the end of empire on British national identity. We will introduce you to the key ways in which historians have tried to come to terms with Britain's 'postcolonial' history.




We will explore the colonization of America by seventeenth-century English people. The memory of the Mayflower Pilgrims has obscured the fact that the first three generations remained English, unaware of the political and cultural distinctiveness to come. We will therefore be concerned with 'the repatriation of early American history'. We shall examine settlers' lives from the foundation of Jamestown in 1607, through the creation of Massachusetts in the 1630s, to the wars and rebellions of 1670-90. Not confined to New England, this module looks at a range of colonial experiences from Maine to the Caribbean, especially the mentalities of people moving between old and new worlds.




You'll examine the development of the English countryside during the Middle Ages. You'll discuss the nature of rural settlement, high status buildings and landscapes and 'semi-natural' environments.




Between the 16th and the early 19th centuries, the English crossed the oceans and claimed territory on every continent other than Antarctica. This module surveys the creation and growth of British Empire, examining its origins and its impact on an array of peoples. In the context of studying how the empire spread and functioned, we'll consider the varied experiences of Africans, Native Americans, Aboriginal Australians, Protestant refugees from the continent of Europe, the peoples of India, the Irish, and British settlers across the globe. The complex, intimate, and often violent interactions of these groups led to ideological battles pitting loyalism against republicanism, for example, and imperial "civilisation" against an array of indigenous cultural revivals. At first glance these struggles may seem to place the British against the subject peoples of their empire, but on closer examination it becomes apparent that they fractured nearly every population within the imperial domains. The creative energy of the British Empire stemmed in large part from collaborations between British groups and individuals and segments of their purported imperial subjects in building, reforming, or in some cases seeking to destroy the structures of imperialism.




This reading-intensive module explores the impact of the First World War on European and non-European states, societies, and cultures. It aims to broaden and deepen the students' knowledge by introducing some of the lesser known aspects of the conflict, such as the campaigns on the Eastern front, in Africa, or the Middle East. Students will investigate the role and perception of colonial troops in the European theatre of war and examine the war efforts of such countries as Italy, Serbia, the Ottoman Empire, and Australia. Further topics to be discussed include alliance politics and the role of neutral states, psychological effects of 'industrialised slaughter', atrocities against non-combatant civilians, captivity and occupation, state propaganda and the spiritual mobilisation of intellectuals, as well as processes of social change with regard to home and family life, ethnicity and class. We will draw on a wide range of primary sources, including poems, paintings, and film. In their coursework, students will have the opportunity to study more specific issues, such as naval and aerial warfare, British military strategy, civil-military relations in democratic and autocratic states, medical innovations, the war experiences of children, or questions of memory and commemoration.




We will explore how 500 years of change shaped the modern landscape. You will study the development of rural and urban landscapes in the post-medieval period and see how a landscape approach can shed light on wider social, political and economic changes. In seminars you will use a wide range of contemporary documents, including maps and paintings alongside written sources, to examine key aspects of landscape change in the period c.1450-1950 and to identify shifts in the way the landscape was represented and perceived. Each week you will explore a different topic relating to key themes such as the development of country house architecture and garden design, the evolution of urban landscapes and the transformation of the working countryside. A number of field trips will take place throughout the year to give you first hand experience of relevant sites and landscapes.




We will look at the modern history of the Middle East, primarily concerning the political history of the region as well as relations between Middle Eastern countries and Western powers. Our aim is to encourage students to think critically about historical processes of state formation, the legacy of colonialism/imperialism, the role of culture and identity, and the significance of natural resources and economic factors.




We will study the development of the English landscape from early prehistoric times to the late Anglo Saxon period, and you will learn to identify and interpret key landscape features from the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages before moving on to study Roman and Anglo Saxon landscapes. Lectures, seminars and field trips will provide you with an introduction to the approaches and sources used by landscape historians and landscape archaeologists. You will develop your understanding of landscape history through the study of key sites such as Stonehenge, Hadrian's Wall and Sutton Hoo. The chronological approach of the module will provide you with an understanding of long term landscape change, telling the story of the English landscape from prehistory to the eve of the Norman Conquest.




You will examine Britain's expansion and decline as a great power, from the end of the Napoleonic Wars to the mid-twentieth century. During this module, you will consider the foundations of British power, the emergence of rivals, Britain's relationship with the European powers and the USA, and the impact of global war. You will also investigate the reasons for Britain's changing fortunes, as it moved from guarding the balance of power to managing decline.




The First World War was the 'seminal catastrophe' of the twentieth century (George F. Kennan). It was, perhaps, the most crucial event in the self-elimination of Europe as the power-house of international politics. It also marked the beginning of the decline of Britain as a great power. We seek, through the study of relevant case studies, to examine Britain's changing relations with the other Great Power relations during the period between the close of nineteenth century and the July crisis 1914. The primary focus will be on diplomacy and strategy in action, on arms races on land and at sea, on foreign policy-making and on the factors, internal and external, which influenced decisions.




In this module you'll study the history of the Third Reich from an international and comparative perspective through the extensive use of primary sources. You'll examine the origins and the rise of National Socialism, the seizure and consolidation of power, the nature and political structure of the dictatorship, and the transformation of German society under Nazi rule, but you'll focus in particular on foreign policy and the impact of the regime's policies on Europe and the world. You'll explore Nazi Germany's relationship with other autocracies and right-wing forces in Europe, German geopolitical thought and the role of the Foreign Office, the formation and administration of the Nazi empire, issues of collaboration and resistance in occupied territories, combat motivation and war crimes of ordinary soldiers, the importance of non-German perpetrators of the Holocaust, the German home front and the effects of Allied aerial bombings, the various plans for a post-war Europe, and the problem of ethnic cleansing both before and after 1945.




The Tudors are England's most famous royal dynasty. This module seeks to move beyond the traditional stories of Henry's turbulent marriages and Elizabeth's stunning victory over the Spanish Armada. You'll gain a better understanding of the change and turmoil the Tudor century caused, not just to the monarchs themselves but to the lives of their subjects, the everyday people of England. Beyond establishing a strong chronological knowledge of the 16th century and its religious upheavals, the module will consider issues of gender; the changing construction of the social order; the importance and developing role of local elites; problems caused by poverty and dearth; and the position of England within Britain itself and within Europe.




The Great War transformed domestic expectations and ushered in an age of Mass Democracy and economic hardship. After 1945 the welfare state and full employment saw rising affluence, accompanied by the emergence of youth cultures, a sexual revolution and new forms of radicalism and identity politics. The economic crisis of the 1970s sped-up deindustrialisation whilst the neoliberalism of Thatcher and her successors deepened inequalities and stoked nationalist sentiment. In this module, you will explore the social, political and economic history of these tumultuous years.




You'll explore key themes and topics in the history of twentieth century sport, from the founding of the modern Olympic Games in Athens in 1896 to the impact which the collapse of socialism had upon sport at the end of the century. Sport's interaction with empire, nationalism, fascism, socialism and capitalism will be considered, demonstrating that the political history and international relations of the century are deeply entwined with it. As an aspect of social history, issues of gender, race and disability are inseparable from this topic, as are the harnessing and exploitation of sport as a means of war or reconciliation at various periods throughout the century.




You'll examine what made Victorian Britain different, both the past and the present. Starting in 1837 you'll study what made Victorian society different as the world's first industrial society, how the early Victorians challenged the aristocratic political system by campaigning for fought for greater democracy through the working-class Chartist movement, bringing the country close to revolution; and how the middle class anti-Corn Law League successfully battled for free trade and cheap bread. You'll also look at the many efforts to improve the condition of the people through social reform and philanthropy. You'll also look at the mindset of the Victorians, including religious belief, phrenology and Darwinism. As Britain became more stable and prosperous, you'll study political modernisation and the emergence of two titanic political leaders, Gladstone and Disraeli, who shaped British politics as we still know it; but you'll also see how the Irish Home Rule and British Labour movements made their mark and why women failed to gain the vote in this period. Towards the end of the module you'll look at the local, asking how different was Norwich by 1901, and the global, asking how did the British empire, in particular, the Boer war, influence British politics, culture, and society. Finally we will ask what Queen Victoria contributed to making nineteenth-century Britain 'Victorian'.




You will be introduced to the darker side of life in Victorian Britain. Though this was undoubtedly a period of economic prosperity, not everyone shared in the gains. You will look at those who, for reasons of poverty or 'deviance' were confined to the margins. Topics include the criminal and insane, gender and insanity, prostitution, drink, slums, the London Irish, and Jack the Ripper. By looking at the margins and the misfits, we will seek to gain a deeper understanding of British society in the 19th century.




This special subject focuses on the life and times of Queen Victoria. We start by exploring Queen Victoria's public and private life. We will examine in detail her political and diplomatic influence, and her experiences as a wife and mother. Drawing on a wide and expansive range of primary sources, including Queen Victoria's own journals and letters, we will seek to piece together the personality and ideology of the woman who ruled Britain for 63 years. Using Queen Victoria's reign as a backdrop, we will also consider a number of the key political, social and cultural changes Britain witnessed in the nineteenth century. Seminar topics will include: Queenship; Constitutional Monarch; Imperialism; Religion; Womanhood; Patriotism; and Republicanism. The module will conclude by examining the perceptions of Queen Victoria and her reign in the twentieth and twenty-first century.




You will explore female involvement in politics, from the Duchess of Devonshire's infamous activities in the 1784 Westminster election until 1919, when Nancy Astor became the first woman to take her seat in the House of Commons. You will examine topics including the early feminists, aristocratic female politicians, radical politics and the suffragettes. You will investigate the changes and continuities with female engagement with the political process from the 18th century through to the 20th century.




This module examines the issue of gender in European history, between 1500 and 1750. Using a variety of written and visual sources, and including a comparative element, we focus on the following themes: definitions of femininity and masculinity; marriage, family and life cycles; queens and queenship; honour and sexual identities; charity and welfare; women and work; material culture; women in the new world; education and learning; early feminists.




This module will provide you with the opportunity to undertake a work placement with an employer in the historic environment sector. You'll be responsible for arranging your own placement, with assistance from the module organisers where required. During the Spring semester you'll build on the experience of your placement through practical seminars, field trips and sessions with external speakers currently working in the sector. These will provide you with an understanding of the career paths available in this field and an opportunity to reflect on how the skills and knowledge you have gained during your degree can be transferred to a range of historic environment and heritage roles.




The importance of youth as a driving force for social change has been recognised by many historians. Young people were often at the forefront wherever revolutions took place, wars were fought and tensions in society erupted. However, the historical study of youth is still a relatively young discipline. This module uses 'youth' as a prism to study key themes in 20th century European history, such as the experience of war, life under dictatorship and the longue duree of social change. We shall examine the diverse experience of youth in Western and Eastern Europe during war and peace times, including the Communist and Nazi state-sponsored youth systems, and also the way in which generational experience and conflicts became underlying forces for social and political change. The module employs a strong comparative approach and countries studied include France, Britain, the Soviet Union, West and East Germany, Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia. The seminars will be accompanied by several film screenings.




Whilst the University will make every effort to offer the modules listed, changes may sometimes be made arising from the annual monitoring, review and update of modules and regular (five-yearly) review of course programmes. Where this activity leads to significant (but not minor) changes to programmes and their constituent modules, there will normally be prior consultation of students and others. It is also possible that the University may not be able to offer a module for reasons outside of its control, such as the illness of a member of staff or sabbatical leave. In some cases optional modules can have limited places available and so you may be asked to make additional module choices in the event you do not gain a place on your first choice. Where this is the case, the University will endeavour to inform students.

Further Reading

  • Rule of Law

    Magna Carta enjoys iconic status in the UK and across the world but until recently there was much we did not know about how it was made and how it survived in the Middle Ages

    Read it Rule of Law
  • Exploring Independence

    The full implications of Britain’s recent decision to exit the European Union are hard to predict. But the longer history of independence in Britain helps make sense of this historic event.

    Read it Exploring Independence
  • How rupture with mainland Europe caused Britain to falter for hundreds of years

    From the fall of the Romans to the Middle Ages, Britain was more prosperous when it fostered a relationship with Europe. How rupture with mainland Europe caused Britain to falter for hundreds of years - Stephen Church

    Read it How rupture with mainland Europe caused Britain to falter for hundreds of years
  • When Bosnia was torn apart, football clubs were ethnically cleansed along with the population

    In many countries sports like football brings people together, but in Bosnia it re-emphasises the divides.When Bosnia was torn apart, football clubs were ethnically cleansed along with the population - Richard Mills

    Read it When Bosnia was torn apart, football clubs were ethnically cleansed along with the population
  • Brexit lessons from Britain’s 19th-century push for free trade

    Many have compared the UK's repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 with leaving the European Union. Brexit lessons from Britain’s 19th-century push for free trade - Anthony Howe

    Read it Brexit lessons from Britain’s 19th-century push for free trade

    Your University questions, answered

    Read it #ASKUEA

Entry Requirements

  • Degree Classification UK BA (Hons) 2.1 or equivalent
  • Special Entry Requirements Applicants must submit a sample of written work (in English). This should be a typed essay on a historical subject, 2-3,000 words long, preferably a photocopy of an assessment marked by a tutor, complete with critical comments and a percentage or grade. The essay should address a specific question, and must demonstrate an ability to construct a historical argument, familiarity with the conventions of academic writing, and competence in English. This should be uploaded to your online application.

Students for whom English is a Foreign language

We welcome applications from students whose first language is not English. To ensure such students benefit from postgraduate study, we require evidence of proficiency in English. Our usual entry requirements are as follows:

  • IELTS: 6.5 (minimum 6.0 in all components)
  • PTE (Pearson): 62 (minimum 55 in all components)

Test dates should be within two years of the course start date.

Other tests, including Cambridge English exams and the Trinity Integrated Skills in English are also accepted by the university. The full list of accepted tests can be found here: Accepted English Language Tests

INTO UEA also run pre-sessional courses which can be taken prior to the start of your course. For further information and to see if you qualify please contact


The School's annual intake is in September of each year.

Alternative Qualifications

If you have alternative qualifications that have not been mentioned above then please contact the university directly for further information.

Fees and Funding

Tuition fees for the academic year 2018/19 are:

  • UK/EU Students: £7,550
  • International Students: £15,800

If you choose to study part-time, the fee per annum will be half the annual fee for that year, or a pro-rata fee for the module credit you are taking (only available for UK/EU students).

We estimate living expenses at £1,015 per month.

How to Apply

Applications for Postgraduate Taught programmes at the University of East Anglia should be made directly to the University.

You can apply online.

Further Information

To request further information & to be kept up to date with news & events please use our online enquiry form.

If you would like to discuss your individual circumstances prior to applying please do contact us:

Postgraduate Admissions Office
Tel: +44 (0)1603 591515

International candidates are also encouraged to access the International Students section of our website.

    Next Steps

    We can’t wait to hear from you. Just pop any questions about this course into the form below and our enquiries team will answer as soon as they can.

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    telephone +44 (0)1603 591515